Ngô Đình Diệm

Ngô Đình Diệm was born on January 3, 1901 in Quảng Bình, French Indochina. He was a mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty during the 1920s until his resignation in the 1930s due to disagreements with Emperor Bảo Đại, calling the emperor “nothing but an instrument in the hands of the French”. He then lived as a private citizen but formed secret alliances with the Japanese during the Second World War, persuading them to support Vietnam’s independence from French colonialism. After the Japanese withdrawal from Vietnam, Hồ Chí Minh asked Ngô Đình Diệm to join him in the fight against the French. Ngô Đình Diệm refused to join the communists because they had previously murdered his brother Ngô Đình Khôi. In 1954 Bảo Đại named him Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam. Through electoral fraud, a heavily rigged referendum and a successful smear campaign against Head of State Bảo Đại, Ngô Đình Diệm became the first president of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955. He established the Personalist Revolution Party of Vietnam, simply known as Cần Lao. It was a combination of Western and Asian values, with an emphasis on Catholicism and Confucianism, and giving special privileges to Catholics while being abusive towards Buddhists. The Buddhist crisis led to his and his brother Ngô Đình Nhu’s assassination on November 2, 1963 by Captain Nguyễn Văn Nhung. The coup d’état was a joint effort between Vietnamese generals and the American government.

Aside from being a dictator under the guise of a kind, religious man, he deserves credit for modernizing South Vietnam with improvements to the economy and the educational system, stabilizing it in spite of his dislike of the Geneva Accords, helping to relocate refugees fleeing from the north into the south with American aid, and allowing citizens more freedom than the communists in the north. (Citizens who fled the south to enter the north received little to no assistance from the communist government.)

Photo:
South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm in Washington on May 8, 1957

0010-NgoDinhDiem

Photo credit: Department of Defense. Department of the Air Force. NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-342-AF-18302USAF (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ngo_Dinh_Diem_-_Thumbnail_-_ARC_542189.png)

Hồ Chí Minh (Nguyễn Ái Quốc)

Today is May 19. For political reasons, Hồ Chí Minh said that he was born on this day in 1890. His birth name was Nguyễn Sinh Cung, which he later changed to Nguyễn Tất Thành. In 1919, he began to use the pseudonym Nguyễn Ái Quốc. Like a chameleon, he changed political views several times, had different dates of birth and more than 170 names.

Nguyễn Ái Quốc arrived in Hong Kong in 1930 to unify the various communist parties. They named the first union Vietnamese Communist Party, and then changed it to Indochinese Communist Party to include Laos and Cambodia. He was arrested in 1931 by the request of the French government and released by the British in 1933. He went by the name of Nguyễn Ái Quốc from 1919 until 1940 when he called himself Hồ Chí Minh.

The first photo was taken in France in 1921.

The center photo is a mugshot of Nguyễn Ái Quốc (aka Tống Văn Sơ) in 1931 when he was arrested in Hong Kong.

The third photo of Nguyễn Ái Quốc was taken in 1934 in the Soviet Union, where he stayed as a guest for the next couple of years after leaving Hong Kong.

0008-HoChiMinh

Photo credit: unknown